Cranial Nerve Review Table

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Cranial NerveForamenRegion EnteredComponentsTarget, Function

I-Olfactorycribiform plate of ethmoidnasal cavityspecial sensoryolfactory epithelium - smell

II-Opticoptic canal of sphenoidorbitspecial sensoryretina-vision

III-Oculomotorsuperior orbital fissureorbitsomatomotor levator palpebrae superioris
superior rectus
medial rectus
inferior rectus
inferior oblique
visceromotorpreganglionic parasympathetic to: ciliary ganglion (innervation of sphincter pupillae and ciliary muscle)

IV-Trochlearsuperior orbital fissureorbitsomatomotorsuperior oblique muscle (poverty muscle)

V1-Trigeminal opthalmic
    (Major branches: Lacrimal, Frontal, Nasociliary, and Meningeal branch)
superior orbital fissureorbitgeneral sensorygeneral sensation from skin and mucosa in region at and above orbit
V2-Trigeminal maxillary
    (Major branches: Infraorbital, Zygomatic, Nasopalatine, and Palatine branch)
foramen rotundumpterygopalatine fossageneral sensorygeneral sensation from skin and mucosa in region from orbit to mouth
V3-Trigeminal mandibular
    (Major branches: Buccal, Auriculotemporal, Lingual, Inferior Alveolar, and Meningeal branch)
foramen ovale with lesser petrosal from CN9infratemporal fossabranchiomotor muscles of mastication
tensor tympani
tensor veli palatini
anterior belly digastric
general sensorygeneral sensation from the skin and mucosa from region at and below the mouth

VI-Abducenssuperior orbital fissureorbitsomatomotorto lateral rectus (best abductor!)

    (Major motor branches: Temporal, Zygomatic, Buccal, Mandibular, Cervical, and Posterior Auricular)
internal acoustic meatus-> facial canal-> stylomastoid foramen temporal bonebranchiomotor muscles of facial expression
posterior belly digastric
facial canal-> middle ear-> chorda tympani-> petrotympanic fissurespecial sensorytaste, anterior 2/3 tongue
facial canal-> middle ear-> chorda tympani-> petrotympanic fissurevisceromotorpreganglionic parasympathetic to: submandibular ganglia (innervates submandibular and sublingual glands)
greater superficial petrosal-> pterygoid canalvisceromotorpreganglionic parasympathetic to: pterygopalatine ganglia (innervates lacrimal gland, nasal glands, and palatine glands

VIII-Vestibulocochlearinternal auditory meatustemporal bonespecial sensoryhearing and balance

IX-Glossopharyngealjugular foramenneckbranchiomotorstylopharyngeus
viscerosensorypharynx, palate, carotid sinus, carotid body and posterior 1/3 tongue
special sensorytaste, posterior 1/3 tongue
jugular formen-> tympanic branch-> tympanic caniculus-> middle earmiddle earviscerosensorymiddle ear and auditory tube
jugular formen-> tympanic branch-> tympanic caniculus-> middle earinfratemporal fossavisceromotorparotid

X-Vagusjugular foramenbranchiomotorpharynx and larynx
general sensoryauricle, external auditory meatus
viscerosensorymucosa of entire larynx
visceromotorpreganglionic parasympathetic to abdomen & thorax

XI-Spinal Accessoryenters by foramen magnum-> exits by jugular foramenneckbranchiomotortrapezius, sternocleidomastoid

XII-Hypoglossalhypoglossal canalnecksomatomotorall tongue muscles (these end in ‘glossus’) are innervated by CN12 except palatoglossus

Last Modified: May 7, 1996
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